ECER 2001 VETNET Abstracts

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Note: the abstracts below have been reproduced from the EERA list of proposal abstracts without corrections or updating.

Attwell, Graham; Kamarainen, Pekka: Growth of knowledge in European VET research: 'key qualifications, ict-related learning and integrative curriculum development'.

Cedefop (the European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training) has organised in several ECER- conferences a symposium that focuses on knowledge development and mutual enrichment among European cooperation projects. From the year 1999 on the respective symposium has had the general heading 'Growth of knowledge in European VET research'. The proposal for the year 2001 takes as its starting point the CEDEFOP framework on 'Key qualifications' (the theme of the 'Growth of knowledge' symposium at ECER 2000). The proposed pares relate the underlying theme to the emerging policy agendas on ICT- related learning and to integrative curriculum development (in the field of vocational education and training). The opening paper of Kmrinen and Attwell provides a general framework for relating to each other some conclusions from the 'key qualifications' debates, the currently emerging European agendas for promoting ICT-related learning and the more specific inputs on integrative curriculum development. It also explores different options for educational research (on ICT-related vocational learning) to contribute to current policy shaping and related possibilities to develop appropriate research designs. The paper of Boreham presents results of case studies that have focused on the curricular options for developing ICT capability in the higher education in the United Kingdom. The immediate context of the study has been higher education and not primarily vocational education. However, the models for shaping the curricula have been partly based on vocational curriculum frameworks (GNVQ) or on such ICT-specific training models that are broadly used in vocational education (e.g. the ECDL). Equally, the analysis of the main options for curriculum design is relevant for the shaping of curricula in the context of ICT-related vocational learning. The paper of Petersen provides an insight into the German pilot project (Modellversuch) SEDIKO. The pilot project has focused on developing new curricular constructs ('learning fields' and 'learning spaces') to promote integrative learning that links the social and commercial skills that are required in customer service into the training for new ICT-related occupations within the dual system. The discussant (Onstenk ) will prepare comments that link these inputs to parallel developments in the Dutch research and development activities. He will also reflect the prospects for European cooperation between different approaches. Each of the papers has a different status and will raise somewhat different questions concerning the development of research activities within the context of discussion: · The paper of Kmrinen and Attwell is related to policy analysis, valorisation studies and to shaping of electronic research resource bases for broad-based knowledge sharing. It provides a framework for a focused research & development dialogue that links the perspective of integrative curriculum development into current policy agendas. · The paper of Boreham is based on empirical studies that make transparent different curricular choices within an emerging area of learning. It also raises questions concerning the room for manoeuvre for curriculum redesign within assessment-led and outcome-oriented curricular frameworks. · The paper of Petersen is based on accompanying research project that has covered several parallel local pilots that have been working with a similar curriculum redesign approach. It draws attention to the possibilities to develop different complementary working perspectives within a joint research-supported curriculum redesign initiative.

Attwell, Graham; Kamarainen, Pekka: Towards a new European agenda for promoting ict- related competences - what role for educational research?

The first section presents an analysis on current European policy developments concerning the promotion of ICT-related competences and ICT-related educational initiatives. The second section examines some critical issues and related options for policy shaping. The third section raises questions concerning the role of educational research and its contribution to policy development. The fourth section links these issues to some conclusions that have been drawn in the context of the Cedefop project 'Key qualifications' concerning the shaping of integrative future-oriented curriculum initiatives.

Balcou-Debussache, Maryvette: Study of writing processes in sit: a useful tool for the analysis of training institutions.

Our study focused on writing practices and vocational training. On one hand, we analysed writing processes themselves in 4 institutions in the field of health (ambulance-men, nurses and nurses-assistants, midwives); on the other hand, we used this analysis to draw the constitutive elements in professional training. Results are based on texts produced by students, interviews, and observations in situ. We show that the analysis of writing processes permits to seize the complexity of various realities: prescribed and actual practices in training, relations with knowledge and authority, construction of professional socialisation. Writing processes can thus be considered as an issue for research and as a useful and pertinent analyser to seize the complexity of training institutions.

Boreham, Nick: Developing ICT capability in higher education in the UK - what conclusions for parallel developments within vocational education and training?

The paper presents firstly the policy background for promoting ICT-related curriculum development within the higher education in the United Kingdom. Secondly it presents the research design and the empirical data that was gathered from different colleges. The major part of the paper concentrates on the interpretation of the results as four main options for curriculum development (with reference to qualification goals, uses of existing training models and integration to other components of the curriculum). The final section discusses the relevance of the analysis for subsequent studies in the context of vocational education and training.

Buyens, D.; Dewettinck, Koen; Vanhoven, Els; Wouters, Karen: The role of HRD in creating opportunities for lifelong learning: empirical study in Belgian organisations

Within the scope of the TSER-project (1998-2000), that aimed to examine the new HRD initiatives within learning oriented organisations throughout Europe, this study confronts the Belgian findings with the European outlook. By making use of a survey that was held under a group of 165 companies, from which 39 are located in Belgium, it became clear that the Belgian respondents, in contrast with the overall picture, don't position themselves on the first place as strategic partners in realising the business. The objectives of development and co-ordination of training still mark the role of the Belgian HRD professionals. Also the results concerning the strategies do not paint a picture of very innovative HRD practices. However, the professionals indicate that strategies to support the business, to stimulate learning and knowledge sharing will become the most important strategies for the future. The factors that appear to burden this change process most strongly, are a lack of time on behalf of the employees, and managers, a lack of clarity on HRD's role, insufficient learning culture and low flexibility of organisational structure.

Buyens, D.; Vanhoven, Els: Continuing vocational training in Belgium: an overview

In 1993, the European Union started a research in order to get a good insight in the different aspects of continuing vocational training in European companies. Using a standardized questionnaire enabled to compare the vocational training of all participating countries. Today this research is continued in even more countries than in 1993. This allows not only to compare vocational training in the participating countries, but also makes it possible to trace the evolution in vocational training over the past years. The first results already show some remarkable evolutions in Belgian vocational training over the past seven years. Moreover, some clear distinctions could be made between different types of entreprises and their way of dealing with continuing training. The elaborative way in which both the formal, classical training methods and other forms of training were questionned and the relation with training- and human resource policy, allowed to create a clear picture of their different constituting elements and their interrelationships.

Curtis, Susan; Shani, Najah: Undergraduates earning and learning: the effect on the learning

The trend for students to combine work and study has been increasing rapidly over recent years. This has raised the question as to whether the students' studies will be adversely affected by their part-time employment. A survey of 359 students at Manchester Metropolitan University was carried out in March 2000. The results indicate that more students are working part-time during term-time compared to survey results from one year earlier. There are adverse effects on study in the form of missed lectures and students' perceptions that coursework grades are lower than they would have been had they not been working. Nevertheless, students highlight the benefits of working, which are not only monetary but include the development of skills, greater understanding of the world of business and an increase in confidence, all of which are advantageous to their studies, both at the present time and in the future.

Dif, M'Hamed: Forms and implications of work related identity transformations: preliminary findings of 'FAME' project investigation in the French case

II. Paper Presenter: Dr. M'Hamed Dif During the last three decades, work related identities inherited from the 'Fordist-economy', have undergone an important structural change leading to: · The decline of traditional vocational identities and their development into micro communities (characterised by their low level of interactivity with work), in which working individuals' career trajectories are becoming discontinuous or completely blocked, · The emergence, at the same, of more or less a 'new generation' of work related identities characterised by their high level of interactivity with the new forms of work organisation, combined with their ability to adapt to any change and internalise it. In this context, the paper will be an investigation into the nature and direction of this change in relation to the development of the new paradigm of flexibility/mobility within the labour market. For this purpose, the paper will be divided into three basic sections. In the first section, the 'post-Fordist' development of the vocational identity concept and its implications will be examined. After a brief presentation of the adopted methodology for this field investigation, an adapted multidimensional conceptual framework (integrating individual and collective dimensions) of identity formation and transformation, will be presented in the second section of the paper. The proposed model will be used in the last section to analyse and interpret the preliminary findings of the first stage in this three-sector investigation (metal industry, telecommunication and health care) in the French case.

Douterlungne, Mia; Evans, Karen; Heikkinen, Anja; Niemeier, Beatrix; Oliveria, Teresa: Improving transition of low achieving school leavers from school to vocational education and training

The paper is based on a Socrates Studies and Analyses project (1998 - 2001) which aimed at a secondary analysis of results of primary research into initiatives which should support low achieving school leavers in performing the transition to VET. The main hypothesis is that forms of situated learning may be the best way to alleviate these transitions. In this case, situated learning is not aiming, to the greater part, at subject specific competences but rather at more general key competences which may additionally be ãhidden' or ãtacit'. The paper explores, in a cross-cultural perspective, the different meanings of situated learning and ãaction-oriented' learning. As a result, it presents a common understanding of these concepts and how they can be applied in different social and cultural circumstances. Because only few primary analyses could be found, in a next step new primary analyses are carried through in the Leonardo-da Vinci Reference Material project ãRe-Integration - Transnational evaluation of social and professional re-integration programmes for young people'.

Ecclestone, Kathryn; Field, John: Promoting social capital in 'a risk society': a new approach to emancipatory learning or a new moral authoritarianism?

The core idea of social capital theory is that social networks have value. Connections foster shared norms, trust, and reciprocity as a basis for cooperation towards common ends. In contrast with physical, financial, and human capital, social capital comprises relationships and collectivities. Social capital is attractive both to empirical researchers and to those interested in policy development. In the context of vocational education and training, it appeals to those anxious to promote an education that is more emancipatory and empowering than instrumental approaches based on human capital thinking. The paper will take the form of a debate about the concept of social capital and refer also to empirical evidence in relation to: · achievement and participation in education and training; · the concept's normative assumptions; · its connection with authoritarian as well as liberal-humanistic · policy responses; · its relationship with reflexive modernisation and risk society.

Ekstrom, Erika; Murray, Asa: The value of a three-year vocational education on the labour market

Educational policy in Sweden has been to raise the minimum level of educational attainment of young people and this is still the current policy. A recent reform of upper secondary school, where the vocational programmes have become three-year, has been implemented all over the country in 1995/96. The aim of the study is to investigate the market value of a number of three-year vocational programmes. Before this reform was implemented all over country a pilot scheme with three-year vocational programmes started in the final years of the 1980s. This means that in the beginning of the 1990s young people with two- as well as with three-year vocational education entered the labour market at the same time. Thus, the value of the two- and three-year programmes on the labour market can be compared from 1993 until 1998. A register from Statistics Sweden about individual's education and labour market position is used.

Evans, Karen: Taking control? learning and work transitions of 18-25 year olds in England And Germany

This paper explores how young adults experience control and exercise personal agency as they pass through periods of transition in education and This paper compares how 18-25 year olds experience control and exercise personal agency in extended periods of transition in training, work, unemployment and in their personal lives. The research has been carried out in selected localities experiencing economic transformation in England and the new Germany. Through a combination of questionnaire survey and group interviews the paper reports how, in different ways, choice and uncertainty can be important dimensions in young adults' biographies in the current moment. Their experiences and actions are not exclusively determined by socialising and structural influences, but also involve elements of subjectivity, choice and agency. The research, which is funded by the United Kingdom Economic and Social Research Council,will contribute to understanding of the processes involved in becoming independent and personally effective in different settings. It also will add to the debate about the most effective ways to support transitions in early adult life.

Evans, Karen; Heidegger, Gerald: Key qualifications for improving individual career choice and enhancing societal human resource potential

The aim of the symposium is to further explore the significance of key qualifications or key competences for improving individual career choice and societal human resource potential. From the point of view of the individual person, to enter a job one is not happy with may impair personal well-being, also because occupational success is less probable. Because ãself-actualisation' in work (Maslow) is thought to be a decisive source of personal fulfillment and growth it is important to provide people with as many options of choice as possible. Suitable choices should contribute to more job satisfaction and to a more favourable state of society, particularly to supporting the identity of people in a world of rapid change. In an economic perspective, it can be assumed that the allocation of jobs to people very often does not mirror the actual capabilities which they dispose of. That means that this allocation is not functional for a well running economy. For economic competitiveness which is proclaimed nowadays as more or less the most important aim it is necessary to transcend barriers of suitable career choice. They prove to be especially inadequate to the modernisation of work processes which are promoted in order to achieve higher efficiency. If more people get the opportunity to choose a career which fits them best they will be able to contribute in the most efficient way to economic success. Thus enhancing in this way human resource potential for the economy should be valuable for the flourishing of society as a whole even if one does not adhere to the idea that everything in society should be governed by economic criteria. These arguments hold for young people looking for suitable vocational education and training(VET), but also for adults who are forced to seek new job opportunities in a new field because they have been made redundant. Here continuing vocational training (CVT) could and should alleviate the task of preparing for new fields of activities. In addition, young people who are at disadvantage because they did not achieve well in school should be supported to improve their opportunities to get access to VET in the first place. Above that, gender barriers still do exist in the labour market which hamper people of both sexes to have a suitable choice of options. In all these cases key qualifications or competences should improve the possibilities of these transitions, that is from school to work, from one occupation to another, from a 'family phase' or from unemployment to work. They can contribute to ãbiographical competence', that is to the ability to construct and reconstruct a career pathway which can be perceived to be sensible for the individual person. Of course the question arises what these key competences are and how they can be furthered in VET and CVT. In addition, it is to be assumed that people very often are not aware of their key competences which impedes their ability to apply for suitable jobs. Therefore it is important to support them in recognizing and evaluating their own competences. The symposium is based on four European research projects which have analysed different areas of the significance of key competences.The results of these projects will be presented. Commonalities and differences will be analysed according to these different areas, but also with respect to cultural differences. All projects represent a combination of empirical field research with theoretical studies as to how key competences could be adequately defined. Finally, policy recommendations will be discussed.

Field, John: Does training have any history? The enduring influence of behaviourism in Britain, 1940-1966

Vocational education and training has a lengthy history, but its influence is rarely acknowledged openly. This paper will consider the influence of behaviourism on the training strategies and styles adopted in Britain between 1940 and 1986. Behaviourist principles were initially adopted by trainers working in the state sector during World War Two. Subsequently, government promoted the use of behaviourist techniques through such mechanisms as training programmes for trainers and its sponsorship of academic and industrial research. This created a receptive audience across industry for the introduction of programmed instruction, which was widely adopted across British industry as a pedagogic platform for inculcating and developing skills and techniques. Both during the War and in the following two decades, British training specialists relied heavily on North American expertise. The lasting legacy of this period was exemplified in the decision in 1986 to restructure the UK's vocational qualifications framework along broadly behaviouristic principles.

Figueira, Eduardo; Hoffman, Bettina; Huttunen, Ulla; Kampmeier, Anke; Patiniotis, Nikitas: Transcending gendered features of key qualifications for improving options for career choice and enhancing human resource potential

The paper is based on a European 5th framework research project (2000 - 2002). The starting point is the fact that the labour market is rather strongly gendered in all European countries which hampers individual career choice and restricts the development of human resources. The main hypothesis is that key competences which people dispose of are gendered, to a great part due to social, historical and cultural conditions. In addition, expectations of prospective employers and actors in the field of VET and CVT are influenced by the perception that key competences are gendered. Via field research about ãself-images' of people and the perceptions mentioned the project aims at establishing in which way key competences can be viewed as being gendered. The objective is to assess possibilities of reducing gendered structures of VET and CVT, thus leading to recommendations for practitioners and policy makers.

Fischer, Martin: Work process knowledge in the context of socio- technicalinnovation

The nature and organisation of work is changing remarkably. Organisations are having to acquire greater flexibility and introduce new technologies and new production concepts in response to the pressures of competition. The first part of this paper comprises approaches towards innovation based on a European R & D project, where partners from Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom tried to establish an interdisciplinary approach to the development of computer-aided production systems. As a background for the development of technical systems, the organisational concept of island production was used. In the demonstration phase of the project, different groups of skilled workers and apprentices were trained and worked in a production island for one week. The results of this investigation will be discussed and will shed further light on other empirical studies from Germany on skilled work in production islands. Training for skilled work requires both the formal transmission of knowledge and an appreciation of experience at work. In the third part of the paper conclusions will be drawn about the nature of the work process knowledge which skilled workers have acquired, and have to acquire, in order to cope with new work tasks and and new production concepts. Work process knowledge in technical and organisational development and ways of organisational learning in the chemical industry and their impact on vocational education and training, EU Fourth Framework, Targeted Socio-Economic Research

Frazao, Lourenco; Oliveria, Teresa: Situated learning as a challenge for the teachers and trainers

"This paper was based on the research carried out within the Project RE-ENTER with the financial support of the European Commission with the framework of the Socrates Programme co-ordinated by Gerald Heidegger, from BIAT - University of Flensburg... The growing number of young people that leaves school before finishing the compulsory school without any professional qualification is a societal worrying question that is related to political, economic, social and educational issues. It is a complex process for the low achievers student's to re-enter in VET programmes. For the teachers/trainers as well as for the training institutions it is a challenge and innovative situation. Thus, promoting new approaches to learning oriented for these students, improving their responsibility, self-confidence, self- esteem and motivation in it is necessary. Teachers and trainers need to fulfil new roles such us, tutors, counselling, mediators, etc. To create suitable training conditions is crucial. The perspective of 'situated learning' is a possible way to implement flexible process of training according each context and realities. The results of a second analyses are based on collected data of studies and research projects that give us an overview of the factors that impeding and promoting teacher/trainers training in order to contribute for a further adequate training curricula. 

Gautier, Gildas; Mendes, Pierre: Training policies valuation in european enterprises by studying the valuation practices

The realisation of an european study program about the training policies in enterprises bring our research team to the analysis or their valuation practices, in order to identify significants elements about these politics. The diffents exercices of a regulation function, which is admited for valuation, allow to find different training management styles, which can traduce in the training policies, the underlying enterprises cultures. The study of eigtheen enterprises in three european countries (France, Portugal, Sweden) consists , from a common methodology defined between the three research teams, in analysis of methods and tools used in enterprises to valuate and in analysis of the obtained results. This common methodology is based on theorical model of "referentialisation" (the referent whole buiding necessary to valuate), which is developed in France by Porfessor Gerard FIGARI.

Gendron, Benedicte: The vocational 'Baccalaureat': a new perception of vocational education and training (VET) in France?

Until the vocational baccalauréats' creation, the French hierarchical educational system rested upon two rifts strongly structuring: in one hand, the opposition between general and technological education and, vocational education programme and another hand, the opposition between short studies and long studies. At the secondary level of education, where the general baccalauréat track was enrolling students whom will be focused on higher education pursuit, the vocational track, with the Certificat d'Aptitude Professionnelle CAP- and the Brevet d'Etudes Professionnelles -BEP- , was considered as the track of 'relegation and exclusion' cumulating negative traits where students encountering scholar difficulties were enrolled (because they were not accepted on the former track mentioned). But since the creation of the vocational baccalauréat track, this structure could be modified and thus, contribute to a main innovation in the French initial secondary education system. In its objective, this programme must offer students who have failed in general education a path for continuing their studies or catching up for tracks that are socially more prestigious. As a result, this vocational education programme could play an important, if not determining, role in the development of schooling for young people excluded and the battle against academic failure where vocational baccalauréat holders seem to benefit from a longer period of schooling and new way to learn. But do those young people excluded from the élite track find in this track, as Alice lost in the Marvellous World, a chance to build their way walking? Fiftheen years after its creation, does this diploma has fullfilled its objectives? In this paper, we will attempt to answer those questions through the analyses of case-studies. 

Goodwin, John; O'Connor, Henrietta: 'I couldn't wait for the day': young workers' reflections on education during the transition to work in the 1960s.

The school and labour market experiences of young workers are a major concern for both academics and policy makers across Europe. This concern has generated a great deal of research reflecting a wide range of debates around the transition from school to work. One of the first research projects to consider this process was undertaken in the early 1960s by researchers at the University of Leicester, led by Norbert Elias. The data was collected via interviews and whilst 910 interviews were completed, the data was not fully analysed or published. Recently, 866 of the interview schedules have been discovered and an initial analysis suggests that the data provides a significant insight into the transition from education to work in 1960s. This paper aims to present some of this data for the first time, exploring young workers' reflections on education, their transitions to work and experiences of workplace learning.

Griffiths, Toni: Learning through work experience: 'context' and 'practice'

Drawing on the results of a TSER Fourth Framework research project*, the paper will analyse how students learn, develop as individuals and develop knowledge through work experience. It will discuss the concepts of 'context' and 'practice' and identify: (i) the learning which occurs within and between the different contexts of education and work and (ii) the forms of knowledge development which occur as a result of 'boundary crossing'. The paper will argue that new curriculum frameworks are needed in initial and continuing VET to allow work and learning in all their forms to be used as a basis for the development of knowledge, skills and identity. * 'Work experience as an education and training strategy: new approaches for the 21st. century.' EU Fourth Framework, Targeted Socio- Economic Research

Griffiths, Toni; Manning, Sabine: Meeting point of networks

This roundtable addresses coordinators and members of European networks and project partnerships involved in research on vocational education and training (VET) and human resource development (HRD). It is intended to facilitate information sharing and collaboration among researchers who are active in a diverse and changing pattern of project work. The idea of providing a meeting point of networks has been central to the European Research Overview (ERO), a project carried out by the Research Forum WIFO as part of the CEDEFOP Research Arena. The roundtable picks up on the structured environment of information and communication offered by ERO, while benefiting from the initiative of VETNET in promoting collaboration and commitment among researchers. In preparation please view the ERO Gateway: <http: //www.b.shuttle.de/wifo/vet/ero.htm>

Guile, David; Hardy, Marcelle; Menard, Louise: Typology of work experience: analysis of the work- related training process in Quebec

This research is based on the collaboration of the school-workplace with several programmes involved in vocational education. It is scrutinising the conditions which influence work-related learning of students involved in one or more experiences of internships in industry. The perceptions of school management members, teachers and mentors are studied here by collecting their views during interviews, which are then analysed qualitatively. The research results are interpreted using the analysis of Guile and Griffiths (2001). With a view to contextualise learning, the authors give an explanation of the different types of training given in the industry and their impact on the students' learning process. The conditions retained for this research concern the characteristics of implementation and development of training in the industry, modes of transmission, monitoring and evaluation of learning in the industry as well as the identified difficulties and advantages of work-related training recognised by the school management, teachers, mentors and students. Guile, D., and Griffiths, T. (2001) 'Learning through work experience', Journal of Education

Hartkamp, Jannes: Apprenticeship In France, Ireland, the Netherlands And Scotland: comparisons and trends

Extensive apprenticeship programmes are not the universal solution to tackle youth unemployment and mismatches between the education system and the labour market. The precise relative merits of apprenticeship have proven hard to establish, and programmes are not easily transferable from one country to another because each has a specific place and function as an element of the wider national transition system. An analysis of apprenticeship in France, Ireland, the Netherlands and Scotland, based on a comparative dataset integrating national school leavers' surveys, shows significant differences in the role and position of apprenticeship. In the Netherlands and France apprenticeship is an alternative for school-based vocational education and trains for a wide range of occupations, in Scotland and especially Ireland apprenticeship is a form of post-school training and more limited to skilled manual jobs in crafts. The differences and the developments over time stress show a variety that can be exploited in life-long learning strategies.

Heidegger, Gerald: Key qualifications for improving individual career choice and enhancing societal human resource potential - introduction

A short overview of the four European projects which are the basis for the symposium will be given, with respect to the different fields of transitions where key competences play a part. Starting from the commonalities which can be found some features of these key competences will be presented which may contribute to alleviating biographical transitions and improving options for career choice, in this way enhancing human resource potential. A theoretical framework may contribute to explaining these common features.

Hendrich, Wolfgang; Kondyli, Dimitra; Oliveira, Eva; Saxbey Smith, Susan: Tacit forms of key competences for changing employment opportunities

The paper is based on a Leonardo-da-Vinci Surveys and Analyses project (1998 - 2001). It explores the field of biographical transitions of adults with special regard to continuing vocational training (CVT). The main hypothesis is that people dispose of key competences which they are not aware of but which could be very useful for seeking a job in an area that is new to them. The question to be analysed is if these ãtacit' or ãhidden' key competences can be made explicit so that people can make better use of them. It was also assessed how far CVT trainers and prospective employers could become aware of these hidden competences. Two main groups were analysed: Participants of CVT courses and ãwomen returners'. The results have asserted the hypothesis.

Joons, Sofia: From normatively constructed identity to new emerging identities in the eu integration and globalisation process: the case of Estonia

Paper Presenter: Dr. Raivo Vilu, Krista Loogma, Sofia Joons 'Double' transformation processes of work-related identity formation in Estonia, as small transition country in the process of accession to the European Union were studied. Development of vocational identity concept from the beginning of the last century was investigated on the basis of the published literature. Periodization of the processes of vocational identity formation which coincided with the major economical and political changes in the history of Estonia was described. Work related identity formation and functioning in the case of technicians, nurses and skilled workers in three economic sectors - ICT, health care, timber and furniture, was studied empirically on the basis of the data obained through the open interviews of the employers of the sectors. Meaning and manifestation of work related identities, factors determining the formation of the identities - vocational education, work environments, professional communities etc. in double transition (from the socialist command economy to the market economy, and accession to the EU, globalization of the economy) were investigated. Comparison of new and old economy sectors (ICT vs. timber and furniture, health care) was carried out.

Kakana, Domna: The 'practicum' in the education of early childhood students: the development of the 'professional teachers' model during the practical training in the department of pre-school education of University of Thessaly (Greece)

The practical training of the futures teachers composes a part and parcel ingredient of all our studies programs in their initial education. This paper has a double object. At first to present the programs of practical training that we apply in our department. This program innovates because students are trained in real job condition in nursery schools, in camping or in area of creative occupation for young children. Secondly we will present inquiring data that shows the expectations of novices before the training and then the changes that have been carried out and also the problems they have met. The data's analysis shows that students in first place are afraid that they would have problem to apply the theoretical knowledge in act. Finally it seems that the confronting problem was the behavior of children and the command of the class. All the students agree that the experience acquired from the practical training in ''not strictly educational'' places as camping helped them a lot.

Koniordos, Sokratis: Vocational identities in contemporary European labor markets

III Paper Presenter: Dr. Sokratis M. Koniordos The focus of the paper is upon investigating how vocational identities are formed in the contemporary 'post-modern' and globalising socio-economic environment. The problem is this: the formulation of professional identity is a rather long-term process in the course of which a work ethic develops and a notion of vocation (Berf) becomes socialised and internalised. This comes in conflict with the contemporary demands on workers for short-term, flexible, versatile work and for being spatially mobile. These are demands that erode character and the identification one has with her/his specific profession. Following the requisite terminological clarification, my aim then is to theoretically investigate how the employee- actors react and (re)cast their professional identities. Of particular interest is why in the contemporary European context some professional groups are adept in adapting or/and re-establishing a recomposed professional identity? In other words, I try to identify sources of variation.

Laske, Gabriele: Can the nature of the European workforce be a source of global competitive advantages?

I. Presenter: Dr. Gabriele Laske 'The major questions of research the FAME project has started to investigate will be presented. The economic perspective, for example, concerns vocational and occupational identities in Europe in respect to labour markets as a possible guarantee of motivation towards good work performance, quality, high standards and commitment at work. On the other hand, these identities may also lead to inflexibility because of too close and narrow occupational cultures and work traditions that resist change. From a social cultural perspective one needs to address the development of collective social identities, organised around professions and occupations. Is the phenomenon of vocational/occupational identities as a constituting element for collective social identities about to disperse due to multiple social and technical changes? How does a future European approach of vocational education and training need to consider and govern this process? The individual perspective raises the question about the biographic quality associated with the stability professions and occupations can provide which a mere job concept can not. Is the identity formation process in relation to professions a stabilising factor in individuals lives and about to disperse? What will be the effect on work performance and ethos?

Lassnigg, Lorenz: Qualification policies, innovation systems and employment: traditional and new perspectives

The paper deals with the relationship between the innovation system and training policy, mainly on a theoretical level. The notion of a Double Helix between education and the economy has stated the hypothesis of co- evolution, however, the underlying mechanisms deserve more attention. Thus the focus of the analysis lies at the institutional interface between education and the political strategies connecting it to the innovation system. The conceptual analysis shows that the main theoretical models about innovation (National Systems of Innovation, Triple Helix) provide ground for new perspectives on the relationships between education, employment and innovation. The new perspectives are posing challenges for traditional training policy which is very much based on the traditional perspective of innovation. The Austrian case is taken as an example to illustrate those problems, and to work out the interrelationships and conflicts among the different sectors of education, with special reference to apprenticeship.

Lima-Basto, Marta: Health education-the nurse's practice

The paper presents part of the results of a larger research project. The main goal of the study was to get a better understanding of nurses' contribution to the health promotion of the population. Direct observation of 34 nurses during their encounters (107) with health centre clients included audio recording of the dialogues. Observations were followed by interviews with the nurses and the clients. Simultaneously, participant observation and interviews to privileged informants took place. Content analysis was facilitated by the use of a computerised software. Main results related to health education as part of nurses' practice include collection of information to identify the client's problems, give the necessary information, teach and give orientation regarding clients' autonomy, sharing power with the clients, in accordance with recommendations regarding health promotion.

Manning, Sabine; Mulder, Martin: Approaches to HRD in Europe

The roundtable is intended to involve researchers in a debate on approaches to human resource development (HRD) in Europe. The major input is provided by an Accompanying Measure of the EU Fifth Framework Programme. This Measure is aimed at building an electronic resource base on HRD in a European perspective (EHRD Base). This will be achieved by synthesising and reviewing major results of EU supported projects which are forming a cluster. At the roundtable, interim results of the Measure will be presented for discussion and evaluated by the participants. Information to support the roundtable will be available online in advance on the EHRD page (http: //www.b.shuttle.de/wifo/ehrd/gate.htm).

Marhuenda, Fernando: The consideration of relevant features for the processes of identity formation in current vet policies

The paper shows how current VET policies in European states -and their particular reliance on work experience schemes- do contribute or rather hinder the chances to develop professional identities in vocational education students. The paper uses the project concepts and models in order to see how they work in policies being implemented, and the extent to which them narrowly focus on skill formation or also take into account -as voices raising from the productive system increasingly demand -other elements contributing to an integral vocational education which lay at the very core of identities -engagement, interaction, recognition by one and the others, a sense of belonging and a sense of community -and which are not only learned, but also taught in different ways.

Nokelainen, Petri; Ruohotie, Pekka: Modeling Growth-oriented Atmosphere With High- dimensional Data Visualisation Methods

The main goal of this paper is to describe growth prerequisites of different employee groups of an educational organisation via both multidimensional scaling and Bayesian supervised model-based visualisation. The following research questions are to be considered: (1) Which factors motivate workers to develop their growth prerequisites? (2) In what extend developing components are connected to work itself? Ruohotie (2000b) has found that the most important factors in the development of growth- orientation are support and rewards from the management, the incentive value of the job itself, the operational capacity of the team and work related stress. Two- dimensional visual scaling showed that growth-oriented atmosphere generated togetherness, reflected on developing leadership that created commitment in employees. Previous studies support the conclusion that leadership (both engaging and encouraging) is one of the key factors leading to valuation of work and growth-oriented atmosphere. Visual evidence supported the theorem that those factors are closely situated in but in different dimensions. Results also suggested that teacher's professional growth- motivation reflects directly with task value on teacher- pupil relationships and on achievement motivation. Task value has also an effect on growth-oriented atmosphere. Results gained from three-dimensional visualisation showed that growth-oriented atmosphere is highest in those work units that offer challenging professional tasks to their employees.

Rouhelo, Anne: The hidden labour market of the academic

The theme of this presentation derives from The hidden labour market of the academic project. The main purpose of this project was to get an understanding of the so-called hidden labour market and also to explore the nature of the recruitment channels of the hidden labour market. In this project the data was collected by the delphi method from experts in two rounds: a questionnaire and a virtual discussion forum via the Internet. In this presentation I will examine the following questions: 1) in what way the hidden labour market differs from the open labour market, 2) in what way formal recruitment differs form informal recruitment, 3) why the academic should try to find a job through the hidden labour market and use informal recruitment channels 4) why the employer should use informal recruitment channels and 5) what is the role of the hidden labour market in Finland at present and also in the future.

Sambrook, Sally: Developing a model of factors influencing learning in work: findings from two research projects

This paper presents a model of factors influencing learning in work. The model synthesises findings from two research studies, one British and the other European, both previously reported at ECER conferences. The European project investigated the role of HRD practitioners in learning-oriented organisations. This paper develops one aspect of that project - factors inhibiting and enhancing learning in work. The UK project focused on computer based learning, and this paper further examines learners' perceptions of the quality of computer based learning materials. Drawing upon the two research studies, the paper identifies the various factors influencing learning in work, at organisational, functional (HRD) and individual levels, and then focuses upon three levels of factors influencing computer based learning. It is argued that identifying these, often contradictory and subjective, factors is an important step enabling managers and HRD practitioners to recognise how learning might be hindered or helped within the organisational, and particularly ICT, context.

Stenstrom, Marja-Leena: Transition from higher vocational education to working life: different pathways to working life

Among the major long-term goals of Finnish educational policy has been that of raising levels of education. This has also been one of the starting points of a reform of vocational higher education in Finland. Legislation establishing permanent AMK institutions (polytechnics) was passed in 1995. One way to evaluate the polytechnics' success in achieving their educational goals is an examination of how their graduates gain entry to working life and what kind of jobs they find there. This paper is a part of a research project dealing with the occupational placement of AMK graduates with administration and commerce, technology and transport, and social and health care degrees immediately after the completion of their qualification (Korhonen & Pesonen 2000; Korhonen, Mkinen & Valkonen, 1999; 2000; 2001). The data consists of three different questionnaire surveys carried out in the relevant study fields. The findings reveal that the AMK graduates have been reasonably successful in gaining entry to working life, but their ability to secure a permanent job and the nature of their tasks varied between different occupational fields.

Treekram, Arvid: WEPP, the work environment pedagogy project

The aim for the WEP-project is to understand how people are fostered and how they learn in a specific work environment. The result of the studies may have a considerable relevance for the strategies in educational policy, which allude to proceedings promoting quality, comfort and health in the educational area in work environment. * * The undertaking of research is defined by eight component projects. These will focus on personnel's and students'experiences of the university environment; universities'description of their work environment relating to their study programmes; childrens'communication and action strategies in work environment; the voice as a resource in educational work environment; the work environment of the kitchen seen from a child's perspective; teachers experience of enterprise education and the preparation for future work environment; teachers' professional development considering the rural teachers'needs, motivation for and possibilities to increase their ICT competence and finally university teachers' knowledge, attitudes and visions of educational use of ICT.

Unluhisarcikli, Ozlem: Apprenticeship and vocational skill acquisition in small workshops in Istanbul, Turkey

In this poster, the results of the study that sought to gain insights into, and understanding of income generation and vocational skill acquisition in small workshops in Istanbul, Turkey are presented. The sample of the survey study included 38 apprentices, 55 journeymen and 88 masters who work in small workshops in Istanbul. In addition to the survey study, in-depth interviews were conducted with several artisans. The descriptive data from the survey study show that the artisans in Istanbul are in general migrants and primary school graduates who mostly acquire or have acquired their vocational skills on-the- job. The analysis of the interviews suggests that the apprentices, journeymen, and masters are contented with their vocational skills acquired on-the-job.

Wolter, Stefan C.: Training incidence and job-mobility in Switzerland

This paper analyzes the determinants of training and the impact training has on job-mobility. Contrary to previous studies we use different definitions for firm- subsidized training and differentiate between job-to-job- mobility and job-to-non-job-mobility. Using data from the Swiss Labour Force Survey between 1996 and 1999, we find that firm-subsidized training has no significant impact on voluntary quits and significantly reduces the workers probability to look for a new job. Moreover, the probability that a firm dismisses a worker who has previously been trained at the expense of the company is significantly reduced, although only in the short term.
 

 
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