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Project HRD & LLL - The role of HRD within organisations in creating opportunities for life-long learning: concepts and practices in seven European countries
Overview The two objectives of this project were to look into the specific interpretation that European companies give to the new role of HRD in fostering employee training; and to contribute to the further professionalisation of HRD in Europe. 

A combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods was used. In the first phase of the project the main method was case study research. Data collection took place by means including the method of triangulation (Yin, 1984). For analysing the data, a cross case analysis was performed, by applying the matrix technique (Miles and Huberman, 1981). In the second phase, a survey among HRD personnel, based on a questionnaire, was carried out in order to verify case study results. 

Moreover, the project included a literature review of Japanese and North American publications, intended to ascertain whether there is a European outlook on HRD. 

This question however proved to be hard to answer, since finding national differences was not included in the project's research questions. However, indications of differences emerging as a result of the survey led to the recommendation that further studies linked to national contexts should be undertaken.

The partnership also produced a practical guideline for HRD practitioners, highlighting glimpses of changing HRD practices. (Tjepkema et al., 2000a)

Insight The major products of the project provide a detailed account of the applied methodological approach, in particular the case studies analysis (Tjepkema et al., 1999), the survey report (Tjepkema et al., 2000b), the literature review (Horst et al., 1999) and the presentation of practices in the practitioner's book (Horst, 1999).
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