The acquisition of integrated qualifications for professional work and
study: An assessment of innovative approaches in seven European countries
- Qualifications with a dual orientation towards employment and higher
education: Applying a pattern of comparative investigation across European
countries (multiplier project)
aim of the projects was to analyse the characteristics and impact of schemes
of dually oriented qualifications (preparing for both skilled employment
and advanced study) across European countries. Both projects went through
a first phase, a comparative analysis of the schemes, based on national
studies, was carried out, against a set of agreed research questions.
This analysis resulted in comparative studies undertaken by groups of partners
and across the partnership. A more detailed analysis, guided by sub-themes
and selected indicators, resulted in a comparative
A central issue of comparative investigation was the extent to which vocational
and general education are integrated; the outcome was a curricular model
of dual qualifications.
a second phase, specific topics were selected for carrying out collaborative
investigations of the schemes within small groups of countries, leading
to topic studies. In several cases these
were linked with accompanying research or follow-up studies on reforms
in the countries concerned. Collaborative work on the topic studies, supported
by roundtablediscussions (workshop),
provided a major basis for generating lessons
of mutual learning and for the dissemination of project results.
analysis was extended from an initial group of countries (INTEQUAL) to
a larger one (DUOQUAL), by adapting the original methodology to a more
diversified context. All partners set out conclusions and lessons of shared
learning relevant for their national contexts. The partnership work was
accompanied by developing a knowledge base
(DQ Base) which served as the major outcome of the project. (Manning, 1996,1997,
DQ Base (Manning, 1999+) provides comprehensive information about both
the process and the outcome of the collaborative project work. In particular,
it illustrates the interrelation of all elements and outcomes of the collaborative
investigation and describes key events of mutual learning, such as topic
workshops and roundtables, in detail.
approach of mutual learning, first set out in the INTEQUAL project (Manning,
1997a), is taken up in a reflective study on the completed projects (Manning,
2001). Further reflection on the approach to comparative and collaborative
analysis, related to INTEQUAL/ DUOQUAL and POST-16 STRATEGIES/ SPES-NET,
is provided in a joint study (Lasonen et al., 2000a, pp. 316-325; 2001).
a discussion on the complementary relations between research issues, modes
of work and experiences on collaboration and mutual learning in the projects
INTEQUAL/ DUOQUAL and POST-16 STRATEGIES/ SPES-NET see Kämäräinen
(1999a, 2000a, 2001).