survey served mainly to test the findings of the case study researchand
to confirm whether the case study results could be generalised. The approach
taken was an affirmative one, without seeking to uncover new ideas.
had to be selected according to the same criteria as applied in the case
studies. A questionnaire was carried out among respondents from companies
in the participating countries. In analysing the results, the criterion
used to establish the degree of variation was the standard deviation of
individual items. The results were compared across both organisations and
countries. For establishing cross-organisational differences in the data,
the main categories of types of organisation were selected.
results of the survey and the case study outcomes were contrasted, with
detailed conclusions being drawn (Tjepkema et al., 2000b, pp. 1-45).