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 Pilot projects 
Conclusions (> Schlussfolgerungen)
National conclusions update: Germany/ Bavaria

Werner Kusch
Staatsinstitut für Schulpädagogik und Bildungsforschung (ISB), München

October 1999

General Assessment
Benefits and drawbacks of the pilot project
Transnational common grounds within the EU-project DUOQUAL
DUOQUAL – Focus on teaching and learning processes

Reference to national case study on DE: Pilot projects.

General Assessment 

From the point of view of all participants, the Bavarian pilot project “Vocational training in the dual system while qualifying to study at a university of applied sciences” that has been running for five years has turned out to be a success. That’s why – provided the demand will be as high as expected – it is planned to become part and parcel of the regular vocational school system. The following factors contributed considerably to the project’s success: the fact that only intellectually able and highly motivated students were allowed to participate; the curriculum integrating vocational and general learning objectives; and the close cooperation with industry, the partner of the schools in the dual system.
    I’m impressed by the fact that Norway – in the so-called “two-plus-modell” where two years of basic vocational training are followed either by an apprenticeship or by a school-based job training – has also managed to make the university entrance qualification an integral part of vocational training courses.

Benefits and drawbacks of the pilot project

Allowing for the fact that the Bavarian pilot project is firmly integrated in the traditional dual system of initial vocational training in Germany, we would like to claim the following:

  • The fact that our young people gain both the qualification to enter a university of applied sciences and to be skilled workers means that all three aspects discussed within the DUOQUAL-project (educational mobility, competence and occupational mobility) are realised in our project.
  • However, there are not enough pilot projects of our kind yet and, what’s more, they have so far only attracted large businesses as participants. Smaller German trades are more in-terested in a longer lasting period of vocational qualification of the young people – for un-derstandable economic reasons – rather than in the trainees’ own desire to acquire, at the same time as vocational training, the qualifications needed to enter university. The smaller trades tend to fear that the trainees will inevitably leave the company again.
Transnational common grounds within the EU-project DUOQUAL

What’s interesting is the fact that in our Bavarian pilot project we were able to realise exactly those ideas and concepts that have found their way into the DUOQUAL-project from the other EU partners. The following developments have struck me as particularly common among all of us:

  • The clear signs of social change in all our countries and the demand for new, for different qualifications in the world of work call for more effort to equip our young people with key qualifications.
  • The fact that vocational syllabus items are becoming more and more theoretical calls for new training methods – such as task-based teaching and learning through cross-curricular project work – and new curricula to implement these new methods.
  • Many partner countries are trying hard to raise the image of vocational education, for ex-ample by introducing double-qualifying educational paths that combine vocational with general educational syllabus items and curricular objectives, including the qualification for university entrance. In Bavaria, we hope to improve the occupational flexibility of the participants in our double-qualifying pilot project and thus raise their “market value” on the job market.

DUOQUAL – Focus on teaching and learning processes

Considered in retrospect, here, too, the Bavarian pilot project supports the same common findings of the DUOQUAL partners, for instance:

  • The combination of general and vocational syllabus items gives learners more clearly-illustrated ideas and thus serves to improve their retention capacity in new learning situations (increase in the effectiveness of learning; shortening of learning time).
  • Such learning situations allow the learners to acquire knowledge experientially and to make better use of their knowledge.
  • The learners’ motivation increases, if they experience the applicability of general syllabus items and know their concrete application situations.
  • The integration of general and vocational syllabus items automatically leads to the learner acquiring key qualifications as vocationally-oriented learning often goes together with new teaching methods or the application of new technologies.

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 First set up 15/12/1999
Latest update: 15/12/1999
 Contact: Sabine Manning