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National conclusions: Greece

Stamatis Paleocrassas
Pedagogical Institute, Athens

September 1999

Reference to national case study on EL: IML and to topic study EL/PT on new job skills incl. workshop.

 The concept

The Integrated Multivalent Lyceum (IML) is an upper secondary education pathway leading to dual qualifications. It offers a curriculum option, which integrates general education and vocational education subjects in the first two grades.  This creates the foundation for two options in the third year: to obtain vocational qualifications for some occupation (this path includes a fourth specialization year) or to attend a preparation course for entering higher education.  The aim of such a scheme was to attract high achievers in vocational education pathways, improve the transition from school to work and improve the relationship between general and vocational education.

The piloting

The concept was introduced to the education system in 1985 as an experimental innovative scheme and became a pilot in 15 schools originally.  It expanded later to 24 schools and towards the end of the pilot (1997) in 36 schools.  Research questions included the administration and management of such schools, curriculum structure,
teacher training needs and vocational orientation and guidance of students.


The evaluation of this innovative experiment showed a success story.  On the issue of status parity between general and vocational education, evidence based on student demand for this school and for its two basic curriculum options showed an overturn of the national demand for general versus vocational schools. 
    On the issue of accessing either transition option by the graduates (i.e. entering higher education or entering the labour market), evidence based on higher education entrance statistics showed parity with the overall national success average.  On the other issue, i.e. accessing employment, evidence based on labour market performance of graduates with the full vocational qualification showed higher matched employment rates than the national average.  However, graduates without the full vocational qualification (those who did not attend a fourth specialization year) showed about the same matched employment rate with the graduates of other type schools, but a longer (almost double) unemployment period after graduation.

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Latest update 09/06/2000
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