Figure E1
Relation of dual qualifications to skilled work
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# degree of work orientation
L = lowM = medium/  H = high
Scheme
Practical training/ assignments
Vocational specialisation
#
GNVQ: advanced level (En)
(no compulsory practical training)
15 areas
L
IML: vocational streams (EL)
(no workplace assignments)
(optional:) 4th year incl. practical training component
13 occupation-specific streams in 3rd year;
(optional:) 1-3 further specialisations per stream in 4th year
L
Vocational programmes (SE)
Practical assignments: at least 15% of time
14 programmes > 28 branches
M
Vocational courses (PT)
Practical assignments: about 10 weeks in total (professional schools)
17 training fields > further specialisations  (professional schools); 4 groups/ 11 courses (technological courses)
M
Bac Pro (FR)
Practical assignments:  16 weeks per course
49 programmes (based on initial voc. specialisation)
M
Exp. reform: voc. students (FI)
Practical training:  minimum 20/120 credits
7 branches > 75 voc. qualifications
M
Vocational streams (NO:1)
Practical assignments
13 foundation courses 
M
Vocational streams (NO:2)
Traineeship: 2 years within  4 year course
13 foundation courses > 210 voc. specialisations
H
MBO/BOL4 (NL)
Practical assignments: short periods in 3-year courses; periods of 3 months to half a year on the job in 4-year courses; altogether 20-60% of time 
4 sectors > about 200 strands
H
Study branches (CZ)
Practical assignments: 25% of time (STS); 
training at practical training centres: 1 day/ week (SVS)
169 study branches > 294 specialisations (STS: 1998/99);
43 study branches > 69 specialisations (SVS: 1998/99)
H
WIFI Academy courses (AT)
Employment alongside course
12 voc. fields (based on specialised initial training and work)
H
Pilot projects (DE)
Training at enterprise (3 to 3,5 years)
(context of dual system: about 380 recognised trades)
H
Scheme
Practical training/ assignments
Vocational specialisation
#

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  First set up: 23/08/1998
Latest update: 09/12/1999
 Contact: Sabine Manning
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