Figure E2
Relation between general and vocational subjects of dual qualifications
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Less relevant
More relevant
# degree of integration
L = lowM = medium/  H = high
Scheme
Extension of general subjects 
Vocational application of general subjects
Education related to transferable skills
Action-oriented education/training
  # 
Vocational programmes (SE)
Core subjects (with individual extension)
(general principle)
(not applicable)
Special projects
L
Bac Pro (FR)
General academic subjects
Vocational subjects integrating mathematics
(not applicable)
Project work as teaching principle
L
Vocational courses (PT)
General education subjects
'Integration area'
(not applicable)
'School area' projects
MBO/BOL4 (NL)
General/theoretical subjects; (optional:) enrichment programme
Vocational application of general subjects; (recently:) problem-based integration of subjects
(not applicable)
Project work (integrating general and voc. subjects)
M
IML (EL)
Common core subjects; (optional:) special preparatory subjects
'Integrated classroom': combination of general and vocational subjects
(not applicable)
'Learning by projects'
M
Vocational streams (NO)
Common general subjects
Contextualising general subjects to voc. streams
"The Guide" to self-reliant learning 
Activity competence: mandatory project work
M
GNVQ: advanced level (En)
Additional units in academic subjects (optional)
Mandatory core skill units
Interpersonal skills; problem-solving skills etc.
Active learning
M
Study branches (CZ)
General subjects ; (optional:)  individual extension; additional subjects for pers. devt.
General education geared to knowledge/ skills in given branch
Development of general/ professional skills and attitudes 
Exercises  (in general and voc. subjects)
M
Experimental reform (FI)
General subjects
Integrated teaching, e.g. of science and environment 
Choice of general and vocational subjects; self-guidance of learning and working
Intra/inter-school projects
M
WIFI Academy courses (AT)
Course unit: general subjects 
Course unit: voc. qualification, incl. applied theoretical knowledge
Course units: fundamental management ; personal education
Active learning (projects)
H
Pilot projects (DE)
General/theoretical subject (unless integrated)
Vocational guidance subjects
Key qualifications as general principle
Central project: combining learning and working task
H
Scheme
Extension of general subjects 
Vocational application of general subjects
Education related to transferable skills
Action-oriented education/training
#

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  First set up: 23/08/1998
Latest update: 03/03/1999
 Contact: Sabine Manning
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