Lessons from schemes of dual qualification
 (countries of schemes in brackets)
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  • combining technical and general contents in the curriculum (DE, NL);
  • integrating general and vocational subjects (EL);
  • providing practical work and work life learning as a base for theory learning (DE);
  • arranging for an apprenticeship as optional period of work-based training (NO); 
  • offering a gradual access to specialisation according to a tree-like pattern (NO);
  • preparing for social participation and citizenship (DE, FR, NO, SE);
  • flexibility in planning students' curricula (SE);
  • allowing for a variety of learning styles (En);
  • oral exams facilitating synoptic assessment (CZ);
  • giving a certain leeway with training time (En, NL);
  • providing a flexible modular system (En);
  • cooperation between institutions of general and vocational education (FI);
  • providing general and vocational programmes in one institution (En; NO);
  • providing different levels of vocational programmes in one institution (NL);
  • developing vocational programmes at advanced level for those who possess lower level vocational qualifications (AT, FR);
  • offering higher education of dual character for students with apprenticeship background (AT, DE);
  • trainer coaching for integrated courses (NO);
  • supplying financial aid to the firms for work based training (NO).

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 First set up 24/04/2000
Latest update: 24/04/2000
 Contact: Sabine Manning
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