WIFI Academy courses
curriculum aims both at integration of general and vocational education
and at differenciation according to individual requirements; access to
Fachhochschule is attractive, but difficult; universities are second choice;
professional career has priority; a general problem of dual qualifications
is what to do with those students who do not cope with upgrading (i.e.
low-achievers): possible solutions could be improved modularisation and
a greater choice of school types.
types of dual qualification are offered, with common educational standards;
the programmes are flexible with regard to time and subject joice; students
are prepared to be professionals rather than to enter university.
(Bavaria): Pilot projects
the pilot project all three criteria are met with success, while at national
level this would probably not be achieved for all criteria; vocational
pathway to Fachhochschule is attractive.
focus is on integration of vocational and general education, which is an
essential quality criterion; a major problem is the academic inertia, the
gap between the academic pedagogy and the problem-solving approach of vocational
education; therefore integration is needed and innovative pedagogical thinking
is required; a related question: is it possible to change the universities?
Polytechnics in Greece have lower status.
standards of general subjects in the curriculum are improved, although
there is no integration with vocational subjects; educational mobility
is advanced; there are no data on the occupational mobility - therefore
competence development the stress is on the vocational side; before the
reform of the '90s there were general subjects, now these are reformulated
into subjects that help prepare professionals; there is a lack in general
education, in preparation for social participation and citizenship; in
this respect the schemes of France, Germany, Norway and Sweden set examples;
both the educational and occupational mobility is successful: 30-40% go
to higher education and graduates are also good prepared for occupational
is not yet much integration of vocational and general subjects, but great
effort to achieve this: it is a major concept; there is an increase of
applying for matriculation; the connection between education and working
life is essential for occupational mobility: students increasingly
use apprenticeship training.
following assessment relates to the professional schools; the integration
of practical competences and general subjects is in progress; there
is little educational mobility: theoretically access to higher education
is possible, but entry is selective and students lack the prerequisites;
courses are geared to those competences that facilitate occupational mobility
and life-long learning.
subjects have been increased; teachers of general and vocational subjects
try to cooperate, also for promoting higher order skills; vocational teachers
are skilled workers, without academic background: cooperation is required
to bridge the two cultures; for low-achievers there are individual programmes
which work pretty well; access to higher education does not include all
university departments (e.g. excluding law and medicine); graduates of
vocational programmes are not prepared to start work - they need more training