Lessons of mutual learning
Overview of discussion notes
    Back to mapping chart

The following notes compiled by Claudia Pasti during the roundtable discussion relate to the mapping chart.
They should be read in connection with the detailed assessments (>lessons) contributed by the partners concerned.
 
 

Scheme
Notes
 Lessons
AT: WIFI Academy courses The curriculum aims both at integration of general and vocational education and at differenciation according to individual requirements; access to Fachhochschule is attractive, but difficult; universities are second choice; professional career has priority; a general problem of dual qualifications is what to do with those students who do not cope with upgrading (i.e. low-achievers): possible solutions could be improved modularisation and a greater choice of school types.
__
CZ: Study branches Three types of dual qualification are offered, with common educational standards; the programmes are flexible with regard to time and subject joice; students are prepared to be professionals rather than to enter university. 
__
DE (Bavaria): Pilot projects In the pilot project all three criteria are met with success, while at national level this would probably not be achieved for all criteria; vocational pathway to Fachhochschule is attractive.
__
EL: IML The focus is on integration of vocational and general education, which is an essential quality criterion; a major problem is the academic inertia, the gap between the academic pedagogy and the problem-solving approach of vocational education; therefore integration is needed and innovative pedagogical thinking is required; a related question: is it possible to change the universities? Polytechnics in Greece have lower status.
__
FI: Experimental reform The standards of general subjects in the curriculum are improved, although there is no integration with vocational subjects; educational mobility is advanced; there are no data on the occupational mobility - therefore no assessment.
__
NL: MBO/BOL4 In competence development the stress is on the vocational side; before the reform of the '90s there were general subjects, now these are reformulated into subjects that help prepare professionals; there is a lack in general education, in preparation for social participation and citizenship; in this respect the schemes of France, Germany, Norway and Sweden set examples; both the educational and occupational mobility is successful: 30-40% go to higher education and graduates are also good prepared for occupational practice.
__
NO: Vocational streams There is not yet much integration of vocational and general subjects, but great effort to achieve this: it is a major concept; there is an increase of applying for matriculation; the connection between education and working life is essential for occupational mobility:  students increasingly use apprenticeship training.
__
PT: Vocational courses The following assessment relates to the professional schools; the integration of practical competences and general subjects  is in progress; there is little educational mobility: theoretically access to higher education is possible, but  entry is selective and students lack the prerequisites; courses are geared to those competences that facilitate occupational mobility and life-long learning.
__
SE: Vocational programmes Academic subjects have been increased; teachers of general and vocational subjects try to cooperate, also for promoting higher order skills; vocational teachers are skilled workers, without academic background: cooperation is required to bridge the two cultures; for low-achievers there are individual programmes which work pretty well; access to higher education does not include all university departments (e.g. excluding law and medicine); graduates of vocational programmes are not prepared to start work - they need more training and practice.
__

  Back to mapping chart

Top of the page
 First set up 11/12/1999
Latest update: 17/03/2000
 Contact: Sabine Manning
© WIFO