perspective of HRD (overall features)
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following features of HRM have been identified as typically 'European'
in comparison to the USA:
features have turned out to be priorities of HRD in large European companies:
in free-market processes;
on the individual with more on the group;
focus on workers rather than management;
role of 'social partners' in the employment relationship;
levels of government intervention or support in many areas of HRM [R02].
same time, growing tensions in European HRM/ HRD policies and practice
have been observed:
skill-level workers' as the backbone of the enterprise;
role of collective trade union representation;
of national government support frameworks [R09].
of HRD practices in Europe has highlighted the following features:
Europe needs to be analysed in a context which witnesses competing forces
of economic, social and business integration and disintegration coupled
with complex patterns of both convergence and divergence in management
policies are faced with the challenge of promoting lifelong learning for
everybody at work while building a strong and sustainable economy [R03].
The challenging role of lifelong learning strategies has been emphasised
in several projects: HRD & LLL [E04a],
IFC [E05a], NEWSKILLS [E07c],
WEX21C [E11b] and WORKTOW [E13a].
of the HRD agenda in Europe is marked by: a much more 'fuzzy' concept than
is understood within the USA; a wide range of research designs and methodologies;
a critically reflective discourse; and a focus on the environmental conditions
of learning rather than on formal instruction [R06].
as an umbrella related to learning of adults in various contexts (profession,
work, voluntary work, political engagement and citizenship);
between vocational education and HRD related activities in companies;
or controversy among social partners having a supporting or inhibiting
effect on joint HRD activities;
of cultural differences between countries and regions in Europe on activities
for learning and development;
of HRD benefiting from EU and national support for lifelong learning [R04].
approaches in the USA and the UK have been identified with regard to the
academic curriculum and professional structure of HRM/ HRD [R05],
[V22]. An international comparison of HRD definitions
has confirmed the impact of national culture on the perception and practice
of HRD [R18].
to selected issues