of employment and training are part of the context of national culture
which influences the development of human resources in European countries
[R02]. There is a long tradition of apprenticeships
based on the guilds. Many countries have a strong tradition of vocational
education. This has led to a close collaboration between schools and companies,
even to the idea of the 'Lernwerkstatt', the learning company or the learning
organisation. We also see a merger between vocational education and activities
in the domain of HRD in companies. Another aspect we find in Europe very
strongly is that training has been organised by branches of industry or
economic activities. In some countries we observe a sharp controversy between
employers and employees. This very often inhibited the development of joint
activities in the domain of HRD. In other countries there is a long history
of deliberation and consensus among social partners. This has been vital
for the development of joint action for training and education [R04].
regard to HRM, four resourcing models have been identified (Germany, Scandinavia,
Central Europe and Southern Europe) [R07]. If the
broader context of national culture and its manifestation in history, law,
institutions, trade union and employing organisation structures is considered
the clustering of European countries appears to be less distinct [R01].
investigation of large organisations has revealed that HRD strategies within
Europe have more commonalities than cross-country differences. The commonalities
refer to the vision on HRD functions and the implementation of strategies,
while the differences are related to the national contexts, incentives
for organisations and individuals to invest in HRD activities, policy measures
taken by the national administration, law enactment in certain fields (like
environmental law, law on labour conditions, safety), and the developments
in the educational systems [R08].
projects address the issue of employment and training patterns in the conceptual
framework of HRD related issues, for instance COMPETE [E01a]
and WEX21C [E11b].
to selected issues