skill shortage in the work force may be high or low depending on the national
resourcing model [R07].
pressing problem on the European labour market is the generally deteriorating
situation of the low-skilled [E07a].
The effectiveness of labour market oriented training for this problem group,
in particular for the long-term unemployed, is difficult to identify E10a].
The following evidence has been derived from projects:
training courses for the unemployed, the curricular and especially the
instructional characteristics are of greater influence on the outcomes
than the organisational characteristics [E10b].
Individualised training is not by definition the best way to choose. Apparently
the social aspect of training can be important as well. Different training
models are required for different target groups [E10d].
The practical training is valued most. Work placements or traineeships
during the course are good vehicles for getting into a job. Innovative
training models such as the Job Switch Model in Denmark have emphasised
workplace-oriented or workplace-led training principles [E10b]
workers receive as many offers of training as other skill groups but are
more reluctant to take up such offers. One hypothesis advanced to explain
this reluctance suggested that the group does not attach much weight to
future benefits. Data from case studies confirm the view that employees
do not normally receive higher wages following a period of employer-provided
training. This lends support to the hypothesis of low incentives to participate
one raises the issue of how you can manage the knowledge development of
those at the bottom line of the enterprise, and how you can really manage
their learning process. When you are engaged with low-skilled workers you
have to start where they are, with an understanding of how they can really
get involved in a knowledge developing work content. It may be assumed
that the informal learning model is much more beneficiary than to introduce
formal learning [V10].
on the analysis of skill shortage problems, the following approaches have
to selected issues
for learning' should be promoted throughout Europe to help raise the potential
of the low-skilled [E07a] [E07c];
which organise training courses cannot afford to target solely the staff
members; they must also involve the unemployed; they should develop new
models combining employment, vocational training and ongoing qualification,
e.g. through a substitute concept [E05b].