changes in working life will continue to impact on general competence requirements.
As a result, the value of traditional training systems has been challenged
and there is an emerging need to adjust educational systems to the requirements
of working life. Related to this, the focus on competence development has
changed from training to learning, with emphasis on a much broader range
of learning environments; in particular, the workplace is now acknowledged
as of considerable importance, sometimes more so than other formal settings
world of vocational training is changing rapidly. There is a general shift
in policy to provide vocational training in the work place rather than
in educational institutions. The customer is less and less the individual
student and more and more a corporate student. A variety of people is taking
responsibility for training, which is now delivered by co-workers, by team
leaders, by middle managers in the actual work situation [V15].
following points have been raised in European projects and related debate:
large European organisations off-the-job training is still an important
strategy, but it is complemented by strategies to support self-directed
and informal learning and to link training with organisational strategy
have been faced with changes in the corporate employee structure (partly
due to short-term employment) and in the requirement profile for employees
(rise in qualification level). In order to cope with these permanent changes
companies are assumed to require suitable training activities for all groups
of employees [E02b].
or work-integrated forms of study are more important than classical forms
of study like in-company and external courses and seminars. In future,
individual employees are expected to take on more responsibility for their
own continuing vocational training, including more self-initiative and
the readiness to invest personal free time [E02c].
integrated delivery of continuing vocational training, which has been piloted
in Denmark, aims at building bridges between institutional learning and
learning at work. This concept implies a new role for training institutions:
they have to related their courses to the realitiesof work, by engaging
in a continuous dialogue with the stakeholders (enterprises and learners);
in this process they develop into learning organisations [V02].
strategies and initiatives involving older workers seem to function best
when build and tailored to adjust to 'local' situation and circumstances
in the company. More attention should be paid on practical training consequences
to motivate experienced employees in SMEs to develop themselves further
companies are only prepared to invest in continuing training and skills
development when the effectiveness of these is clear. The people responsible
for training are therefore put under pressure to prove the cost of corporate
training measures and to make statements about their benefits. Consequently
they expect support from controlling [E02a].
to selected issues