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  Adjusting continuing training to organisational flexibility
   
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  The changes in working life will continue to impact on general competence requirements. As a result, the value of traditional training systems has been challenged and there is an emerging need to adjust educational systems to the requirements of working life. Related to this, the focus on competence development has changed from training to learning, with emphasis on a much broader range of learning environments; in particular, the workplace is now acknowledged as of considerable importance, sometimes more so than other formal settings [E13b].

The world of vocational training is changing rapidly. There is a general shift in policy to provide vocational training in the work place rather than in educational institutions. The customer is less and less the individual student and more and more a corporate student. A variety of people is taking responsibility for training, which is now delivered by co-workers, by team leaders, by middle managers in the actual work situation [V15]. 

The following points have been raised in European projects and related debate:
(a)
In large European organisations off-the-job training is still an important strategy, but it is complemented by strategies to support self-directed and informal learning and to link training with organisational strategy [R08].
(b)
Companies have been faced with changes in the corporate employee structure (partly due to short-term employment) and in the requirement profile for employees (rise in qualification level). In order to cope with these permanent changes companies are assumed to require suitable training activities for all groups of employees [E02b].
(c)
Job-related or work-integrated forms of study are more important than classical forms of study like in-company and external courses and seminars. In future, individual employees are expected to take on more responsibility for their own continuing vocational training, including more self-initiative and the readiness to invest personal free time [E02c].
(d)
The integrated delivery of continuing vocational training, which has been piloted in Denmark, aims at building bridges between institutional learning and learning at work. This concept implies a new role for training institutions: they have to related their courses to the realitiesof  work, by engaging in a continuous dialogue with the stakeholders (enterprises and learners); in this process they develop into learning organisations [V02].
(e)
HRD strategies and initiatives involving older workers seem to function best when build and tailored to adjust to 'local' situation and circumstances in the company. More attention should be paid on practical training consequences to motivate experienced employees in SMEs to develop themselves further [E13c] . 
(f)
Many companies are only prepared to invest in continuing training and skills development when the effectiveness of these is clear. The people responsible for training are therefore put under pressure to prove the cost of corporate training measures and to make statements about their benefits. Consequently they expect support from controlling [E02a]. 

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