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  Sharing responsibility for HRD between professionals, managers and employees
   
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  The execution of HRD activities is a shared responsibility of HRD professionals, managers and employees [R08]. 

With regard to the division of HRD tasks, it becomes clear that HRD professionals still carry the biggest share of responsibility for HRD (at least in their own estimation of the situation). Managers and employees are important active partners, and are expected to become more so in the future. Their role is predominantly one of identifying learning needs, stimulating and supporting informal learning, ensuring continuous learning (of oneself and others). HRD professionals provide support, among other things by organising training and supporting informal learning efforts [E04c]. 

The development of human resources is increasingly becoming a business of line-managers, due to the convergence in management of of organisational and individual competencies and to new ways of organising firms [E04b].

The implementation of learning organisations raises serious challenges for vocational education and training and human resource development actors. The issues here are that organisational learning is something outside of the vocabulary of many people in education. It's lots of individual learning, qualifications and less formal systems, so the concept of dealing with this sort of chaotic organisational learning is something that for a lot of professionals in VET and also to a certain extent in HRD, but much less so, is a challenge. For people engaged in the VET system, which is a rather complex system to start with and very heterogeneous, there has to be much more focus on engaging with untidy social environmental learning, where we have lots of complex relationships, complex ways of teaching [V25].

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Editor: Sabine Manning  © WIFO