from skill building to performance improvement and competence development
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emphasis on high-performance work implies a shift from isolated skill building
to performance improvement [R16]. Several surveys
underpin this trend of competence development:
need for 'new' competences has been stressed by employers emphasising the
need for more social competences and non-technical personal competences.
Expectations of many employers have shifted to a broader understanding
of abilities and competences both of employees and of job-applicants. Often
they expected more self-responsible work and competences suitable for adapting
to new work environments and for coping with organisational change [E09].
organisations, both large and small, have a global skills system
which is very closely tailored to fit their specific product and process
mix, and they train internally to this model [E01a].
are far more interested in how ‘soft’ skills and competences are represented
than in how formal qualifications are accredited. Companies have a real
need for skills that facilitate ‘just-in-time’ learning, the development
and utilisation of ‘organisational memory’, and the incorporation of client
feedback [E01a] [E01b]
of competencies and derived variants are core issues in HRM developments.
As two large companies show, the personal competence profile of each individual
is used for skills development purposes and for career development. To
keep the individual employee optimal employable is the major challenge
companies expect that in future the overall demand for employee qualifications
and skills will change. Above all an increase in general qualifications
such as social and methodological skills is considered necessary. A large
number of companies assume that their employees will be more specialised
in the future. A reduction in the amount of specialisation on the other
hand is rather rarely anticipated [E02b].
is a distinction between individual competence and collective competence.
Education and training seem to privilege individual competence. In the
UK, and probably other countries, certificates of competence in work-related
skills are awarded to trainees, not work groups. But if we look at knowledge
and skills that are useful in a work situation, these have somehow become
collective competencies [V09].
study in the UK has revealed that the needs and opportunities of developing
competences are closely related to the type of work organisation. While
companies pursuing work-intensive/ Taylorist strategies tend to promote
non-transferable skills, companies favouring multi-skilling/ anthropocentric
strategies provide a context for encouraging cognitive skills, job enrichment
and increased commitment. The transfer of employees between different types
of organisations will pose problems for individual competence development
case study on the use of implicit competences among Portuguese women shows
that learning starts out from life context and not only from work. Women
tend to be more occupied with life competences while men concentrate on
work competences. Women can capitalise on learning intensive work [V05].
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