and tension between lifelong learning and HRD in Europe
thematic areas of the LLL Base and the EHRD
at the round table of the HRD Conference in Toulouse, 24 May 2003 (see
> 1 > 2 > 3
> 4 > 5
collaboration with European researchers I have developed two knowledge
bases: one about lifelong learning in Europe (LLL
Base) and another one about human resource development in Europe (EHRD
Base). Each of these two knowledge bases emerged in a specific context:
two knowledge bases have been produced and maintained completely separate
from each other. What they have in common, though, is a thematic approach:
each knowledge base is built on a conceptual field with interrelated themes
of research. The two knowledge bases may therefore provide interesting
perspectives on linkages and tensions between the thematic fields of lifelong
learning and human resource development in Europe.
Base, designed in cooperation with CEDEFOP, started out from issues
related to the EU Memorandum on lifelong learning (2001). Its aim was to
highlight results of research and policy analysis, with a focus on challenges
for vocational education and training.
Base was created in collaboration with a cluster of research projects
supported under the Fourth and Fifth Framework programmes of the EU. Its
aim was to bring together research results, and stimulate interaction among
researchers, in areas related to HRD in Europe.
following figures have been prepared to highlight the thematic relationship
between these two knowledge bases (the explanatory text below is also attached
to each page showing the figure concerned).
and process of lifelong learning in Europe (Figure
learning, as perceived in the LLL Base, is centred on the individual life
cycle, in liaison with the processes of learning and working. The related
context is defined by the triangle of community, education and profession.
and field of human resource development in Europe (Figure
resource development in the EHRD Base is described as a broad field of
activities, involving professionals, managers and workers. The focus of
interest in these HRD activities is the organisation.
<-> Organisation (Figure 3)
different focal points have been identified in the conceptual fields of
LLL and HRD: the individual and the organisation. While these may imply
contrasting concepts, there are also close linkages between these two.
The interrelation or shift of emphasis between the individual and the organisation,
between LLL and HRD, have been addressed as challenges. Two quotations
by Petr Jarvis and Barry Nyhan, selected from the knowledge bases (Jarvis
2002 and Nyhan et al. 2003), may illustrate
of LLL in Europe (Figure 4)
of lifelong learning have grouped according to five thematic areas: developing
competences/ skills and learning environments, offering information/ guidance
and facilitating bridges/ pathways in the education system, and providing
frameworks/ incentives for lifelong learning.
of HRD in Europe
HRD, as a broad concept, includes the following thematic areas: human resource
development/ management (HRD) in particular, linked with DO), continuing
vocational training (CVT), knowledge management (KM), work-based learning
(WBL) and learning in organisations/ organisational learning (LO).
between areas of LLL and HRD (Figure 6)
two sets of thematic areas identified for LLL and HRD respectively seem
to be fairly distinct and different in terminology. However, if the processes
(e.g. managing, guiding, learning) which underpin these terms are considered,
the areas can be related to each other. For this purpose, the two sets
of thematic areas have been arranged as a continuum between two complementing
processes: 'facilitation' and 'learning'.
By contrasting the thematic areas of LLL and HRD in this way, and considering
the rich evidence of the knowledge bases behind these themes, the following
pattern emerges: while there is a week relationship between thematic areas
concerned with the facilitation of LLL and HRD respectively, the relationship
between areas focusing on the learning process turns out to be strong.
outcome is significant in underlining a message expressed in several contributions
to this conference: both in the context of LLL and HRD, the learning process
is addressed as a central concern of research and practice.