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Title IFC
Further training funds as an impulse for new models of lifelong learning: Integrated funding concepts
Concept Trends Findings Practice Challenge
Synopsis The comparative study of national funding arrangements for further training includes the following findings:

(a) Countries where funds created by the social partners are existing (like Denmark and Norway) or where pure employers’ funds - on a voluntary or obligatory basis – for vocational education were created (like in the Netherlands) are much more creative or successful when it comes to the construction of ‘models’ securing employment or of reintegrating unemployed and of the regional or branch-specific reduction of quantitative or qualita-tive bottle-necks of staff than countries where different groups of society only take on responsibility for those interests specific to themselves. 

(b) Countries where vocational and general qualification is seen as a lifelong option even perhaps as a lifelong obligation and which are securing such a basic position of educational policies also financially (like above all done in Denmark) find it much easier to be a competent partner of all those concerned when solutions need to be developed.

(c) Governments sometimes try to use incentive mechanisms to encourage the expansion of employer training in conditions of poorly developed or monopolised training supply. However, mechanisms that consistently fail to reward the improvement of productivity and efficiency are more or less ineffective and wasteful. Incentive schemes should be matched by policies that encourage the development of training markets and provide economic incentives for more successful firms (Uhrig et al. 2000, p. 3).

Reference National variations of funding systems for further training are explored in the final report (Uhrig et al. 2000, pp. 16-40). 
See also project info on IFC.
Descriptors D-CVT            
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Editor: Sabine Manning  © WIFO