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The effectiveness of labour market oriented training for the long-term unemployed 
Concept Trends Findings Practice Challenge
Synopsis The following conceptual issues are considered below: how to classify the training programmes and how to identify their effectiveness.

(1) How to classify the training programmes for the long-term unemployed?
In attempting to classify the various schemes and initiatives, two relevant dimensions emerge. The first dimension concerns the amount of centralisation (or decentralisation/local autonomy). Applying this dimension, the following categories can be distinguished:
(a) national programmes encompassing courses which are provided on a national level;
(b) national framework programmes, within which actual course decisions and provision are more or less decentralised;
(c) decentralised provision of training, characterised by a variety of local initiatives.
The second dimension concerns the locus of delivery (or mode of delivery), related to the following types of courses:
(a) mainly school based courses, with only a small percentage of total curricular time spend on practical training,  either within the training centre or within an enterprise;
(b) mixed type courses, in which a more substantial part of the total curricular time is spend on practical training in enterprises, or in which school based and work based training are alternated;
(c) mainly work based courses, where the majority of the curricular time is spent on practical ‘on-the-job’ training;
(d) fully work based training or work placements.
The application of these two dimensions leads to a classification of training programmes for the unemployed (Brandsma 1999, pp. 2-5).

(2) How to identify the effectiveness of labour market training for the long-term unemployed?
The investigation focuses on the process variables - that is the organisational, curricular and instructional characteristics of training programmes - that might make one training programme more effective if compared with another training programme. A more specific objective at the beginning of the project was to develop a possible model which could explain the effectiveness of labour market oriented training programmes for the long-term unemployed. In the course of investigation it was decided to develop two more specific models: an output model (what influences whether or not the course is finalised) and an outcome model (what influences whether or not a job is found). The final model concerning the effectiveness of labour market oriented training for the long-term unemployed was not built, partly for the reason that stronger relations had been expected between some of the process characteristics and the output and outcome criteria (Brandsma 1999, pp. 2, 11-14, 22).
Reference Further details about the classification of training programmes for the long-term unemployed and about the development of the effectiveness model are set out in the final project report (Brandsma 1999).
See also project info on UNEMPLOYED.
Descriptors D-CVT  EP02          E10a
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Editor: Sabine Manning  © WIFO