of the research into the effectiveness of labour market oriented training
for the long-term unemployed include the following:
of training organisations
from the differences in (national) regulations and funding arrangements,
which partially determine the differences in organisational and curricular
characteristics between the courses, it is quite clear that the labour
market as such is particularly relevant for the effectiveness of the training
in terms of its outcomes.
internal level it seems that the curricular and especially the instructional
characteristics are of greater influence on the output and particularly
the outcomes of the courses than the organisational characteristics, even
though the organisational characteristics set the stage for further developing
particular curricular and instructional characteristics (Brandsma
1999, pp. 8, 10).
most important reasons for enrolment in training programmes include getting
a job or improving the chances to get a job, together with a certain personal
interest in the subject of the course. Reference to being pressured to
enrol or financial reasons (loosing benefits or gaining additional benefits)
are hardly mentioned (Brandsma 1999, p.
it seems that the practical training (either practical training within
an enterprise or the practical assignments and exercise within the training
centre) is valued most. Where a period of work placement or practical training
was expected and not provided, this is perceived by former trainees as
a drawback and one of the characteristics on which they judge the course
negatively. Concerning the learning outcomes, former trainees often mentioned
the job or occupation specific knowledge and skills, communication skills,
increased self-esteem or self-confidence and acquisitions of job search
skills (Brandsma 1999, p. 10).
suggests that work placements or traineeships during the course are good
vehicles for getting into a job. Among the channels for finding a job,
staying on with the employer of the work placement is the most important.
Other channels are own applications (especially in Ireland), informal channels
(especially the UK), the employment agency (especially Norway) and through
the training centre (especially in Belgium). What parts of the course are
considered as having been helpful for find a job? Job related skills and
the practical training (within an enterprise) receive the highest score,
but also the job related theory and the general knowledge are considered
as having been helpful. The training in job search skills is in this respect
the least valued (Brandsma 1999, pp.