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The effectiveness of labour market oriented training for the long-term unemployed
Concept Trends Findings Practice Challenge
Synopsis The following practical examples are discussed in connection with the effectiveness model of training for the long-term unemployed:

(1) Practical orientation of the training programme
Innovative training models that have been and are still developed in some European countries (e.g. Denmark, Germany) emphasise workplace-oriented or workplace-led training principles. An interesting example is, in this respect, the Job Switch Model that has been developed in Denmark. The principle of this model is that employees that go off on training are replaced by (long-term) unemployed persons, who, after some training, can fill the vacancy. It is expected that through the work experience that these unemployed obtain, they improve their chances on the labour market. Or that they can keep their (temporary) job after the trained employee returns, since this employee can move on to another (higher) post, leaving a vacancy for the former unemployed. However, the extent to which this ‘effect’ occurs is somewhat controversial (Brandsma 1999, p.52).

(2) Political context of the training programme
A specific example in this context concerns the situation in England. Although there are some national initiatives regarding training for the unemployed, which can be perceived as framework programmes, the actual provision of training as well as the actual training courses and their content are decided locally. The prime responsibility for the planning and content of the training resides with the Training and Enterprise Councils (TECs). Next to this, the TECs are responsible for setting the training targets and for the funding of those training organisations, contracted by them to provide training, and therefore, indirectly, for defining the desired output and outcomes. The funding system is based on output financing, which means that training organisations are funded for each trainee/former unemployed that obtains a job. In practice this can mean that trainees are actually pushed out of training to accept a job, whether it is related to the training or not. The emphasis lies, therefore, on getting unemployed into a job, and not as much on improving their qualifications (Brandsma 1999, p.53). .

Reference A large number of practical examples related to the effectiveness of labour market oriented training for the long-term unemployed are included in the final project report (Brandsma 1999), in particular as part of the inventory of training programmes and of the comparative case studies.
See also project info on UNEMPLOYED.
Descriptors D-CVT  EP02          E10c
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Editor: Sabine Manning  © WIFO