and HRD research have mainly been conducted in Finnish universities. There
are 20 universities in Finland and more than 164,000 university students
in all. Ten of these universities are traditional multidisciplinary universities
and the remaining ten are specialised institutions. All Finnish universities
are state-owned and their activities are mainly financed from the state
budget; however, they enjoy a high degree of autonomy in their internal
affairs. In recent years, the proportion of external funding has increased
in universities, mainly in research activities.
financiers of research in Finland are The Academy of Finland and the National
Technology Agency (Tekes):
HRD research costs cannot be specified from the statistics. Most of VET/HRD
research is linked under the field of educational research. In 2004, the
operating expenses for educational research were a total of 50 million
EUR, of which 33 million EUR were provided by basic financing from universities.
The rest of the financing came from outside the universities. The Academy
of Finland supported research with 3.6 million EUR, the Ministry of Education
with 1.6 million EUR and Tekes with 0.7 million EUR.
of Finland provides funding for high-level scientific research, acts as
a science and science policy expert and works to strengthen the position
of science and research. Annually the Academy issues funding decisions
worth around 200 million EUR. More than 3,000 research professionals are
engaged in Academy-funded projects at universities and research institutes.
Academy research funding is designed to promote gender equality and specifically
to encourage women to apply for research posts and research grants.
the National Technology Agency, is the main public financing and expert
organisation for research and technological development in Finland. Tekes
finances industrial R&D projects as well as projects in universities
and research institutes. Tekes especially promotes innovative, risk-intensive