main body of research related to VET in France is conducted by Céreq
(‘Centre d’études et de recherche sur les qualifications’) and its
regional centres. As a public centre of expertise at the service of the
key players in training and employment, Céreq conducts assessments
of the application of reforms and action research.
05/04/2004 law on lifelong learning pioneered the individual right to training
(DIF). It required a reorganisation in the methodology of observation of
personal and collective training practices in research projects. The concepts
of and usual frontiers between ‘formal’, ‘informal’ and ‘non-formal’ training
are re-examined. Some evaluations focus on the practices of the professional
branches (publication of the PSB, ‘statistical portraits of sectors’ by
Céreq), of employers and of employees. Numerous studies focus on
the management of human resources in the workplace, the offer of continuous
training and the development of competences.
08/13/2004 decentralization law (concerning local authorities which enlarged
the responsibilities and competences of regions in the matter of training)
diversified the regional projects of R&D issued by universities and
regional centres associated to Céreq. The studies focus on the training
offer, the plans for guidance and the certification offer. Moreover, the
regional database of the ‘statistical group for evaluation’ was developed
was marked by three measures: the 01/18/2005 law of programming for social
cohesion, which reformed apprenticeship, reinforcing the procedures of
VAE (Validation of non-formal learning); the 06/30/2005 edict which reduced
the obligations of training providers; the emergency plan for employment,
by the prime minister, which consisted of particular measures regarding
the employment of youngsters and of older workers (announced on 12/12/2005).
measures which respond to concerns raised in the social debate in the last
few years are also present in the sphere of research projects. Two kinds
of projects are related with these measures: projects which specifically
analyse the application of the laws, and more transversal projects. Large
quantitative and qualitative studies, covering 5, 7 and soon 10 years in
retrospect, tackle these themes in a transversal way: from the entry into
working life to the first parts of a career, from initial to continuous
training, from the individuals’ behaviour to the firms’ workforce policies.
Some projects specifically focus on the entry into working life (social
integration of youngsters, differentiation by gender and ethnic background),
on the articulation between initial training and workplace, on professional
mobility and on personal career paths.