VET and HRD research in European countries > Overview

Hungary  [1]  Context of national VET/HRD policies

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The current national VET/HRD policies and reform measures have been defined in the strategies of the various sectors of education related to VET/HRD in Hungary (public education, VET including trainings awarding qualifications listed in the National Qualifications Register, higher education and adult training), accepted in the past 1 to 2 years, and most recently in the 'Strategy of Lifelong Learning' (accepted in October 2005). The assessment of the current situation described in these strategies as well as the measures chosen to address the challenges were based on, and in many cases have been urged on by, various research studies about the labour market and the adequacy of the VET/HRD system. These studies and statistics have drawn attention to the weaknesses of the current structure, financing, content, and applied methodology of these educational sectors that result in the discrepancy of the output of VET and the needs and demands of the labour market, the high number of drop-outs in vocational schools, or the problems of accessibility for various groups of young people and adults. 

Besides the development projects implemented via the Operational Programmes of the Ist National Development Plan of Hungary, financed jointly by national sources and Structural Funds assistance (therefore discussed in section 2), the major current national development programme aiming to address the challenges of school-based VET is the Development Programme of Vocational Schools (Szakiskolai Fejlesztési Program). The programme involves 4 general components (General education and vocational grounding; VET Methodology; Reintegration of disadvantaged students; Self-development of schools and Quality improvement) and 4 thematic projects (Foreign languages - English and German; Vocational school measurement evaluation; Vocational school career orientation; and Information technology in vocational schools), aiming at content as well as human resources development.

The process of designing this programme and the implementation of other reform measures defined in the 'Strategy of the Development of Vocational Education and Training until 2013' (2005) involve, as well as have initiated, various research projects coordinated by the Nemzeti Szakképzési Intézet (NSZI, National Institute of Vocational Education; e.g. feasibility studies of developing the module and credit system of VET in Hungary) and by the Nemzeti Felnöttképzési Intézet (NFI, National Institute of Adult Education). Some of the various research projects carried out or coordinated (tendered) by the NFI served as the foundation of the '1069/2004. (VII.9.) Gov. resolution on the directives and action plan of the development of adult training', while others have been initiated by the measures defined in this document (e.g. those related to the introduction of individual training accounts, of a system of training replacement, competence-based adult training methods, or the in-service training of adult training instructors, etc.).

The Hungarian government and the various ministries have also commissioned a number of background assessment studies and surveys on the current situation of VET and HRD and their adequacy to the labour market needs during the development process of the National Plan of Hungary and its Human Resources Development Operational Programme (designed to set the framework for the utilization of Structural Funds sources during the period 2004-2006).

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Source: Cedefop - National Research Report Hungary (details see Bibliography)
Editor: Sabine Manning  © WIFO