learning memorandum, Lisbon, Bruges and Copenhagen process
VET/HRD policies in the past 5 years have been deeply influenced by the
EU guidelines on lifelong learning, the Lisbon, Bruges and Copenhagen process,
not however by EU research, which probably has only had a direct influence
on EU programmes and projects. National VET/HRD policies have been coherent
with the engagement taken by Italy at the Lisbon Council and developed
with the process of Bruges-Copenhagen, for the promotion of VET cooperation.
The reforms have developed innovative proposals for education on the basis
of the principles of lifelong learning, alternance between study and work,
certification transparency strategy - Cedefop and Europass
activity of Cedefop, in particular in the last year with the EU initiative
Europass, has deeply influenced VET/HRD policies.
of qualifications has been developed following EU initiatives since 1992.
In the last year important progress has been made for the qualifications
transparency. Two Agreements on 'Certification and validation of learning
credits', between the Minister of Education and University, the Minister
of Labour and Social Policies, the Regional Authorities, and the Autonomous
Provincial Authorities of Trento and Bolzano” were signed in 2004. The
important effect of these agreements is the definition of a pathway for
the 'governance of the national and local system', which will lead to define
the general system for the classification of vocational skills, the standard
general criteria for certifying skills (training booklet) and credits,
the minimum skill training and accreditation standards.
through the National and RegionalOperational Programmes, has been a catalyst
for the development of the VET/HRD national and regional policy. The programming
period 2000-2006 with the definition of the National and the Regional Operational
Programmes has financed most of the VET/HRD researches which are used for
the monitoring and the development of the reforms at national and regional
Research Framework is more centred on scientific research. The subjects
of the researches presented and approved include very few projects which
can affect VET/HRD policy.